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有害使用酒精可以致命!


有害使用酒精可以致命!(图2)


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有害使用酒精可以致命!(图18)


有害使用酒精可以致命!(图22)

原标题:有害使用酒精可以致命!

根据世界卫生组织(世卫组织)近日发布的一份报告,2016年有300多万人因有害使用酒精而死亡,占死亡总数的二十分之一。这些死亡中四分之三以上为男性。总体而言,有害使用酒精导致全球疾病负担的5%以上。

有害使用酒精的后果

世卫组织《2018年酒精与健康全球状况报告》全面介绍了世界各地酒精消费和酒精导致的疾病负担情况。此外,还阐述了各国为减轻这一负担正在采取的措施。

谭德塞博士

世界卫生组织总干事

“有太多人及其家庭和社区在遭受有害使用酒精的后果,包括暴力、伤害、精神卫生问题以及癌症和中风等疾病。这已对健康社会的发展构成严重威胁,加紧行动予以制止的时候到了。”

在所有可归因于酒精的死亡中,28%系因伤害所致,例如交通事故,自我伤害和人际暴力等;21%源自消化功能紊乱;19%源自心血管疾病,其余则由传染病、癌症、精神障碍和其它病症所导致。

虽然自2010年以来,全球在短暂性狂饮流行率和酒精相关死亡人数方面出现了一些积极趋势,但有害使用酒精造成的总体疾病和伤害负担仍高得令人无法接受,特别是在欧洲区域和美洲区域。

全球估计有2.37亿男性和4600万女性患有酒精使用障碍,欧洲区域和美洲区域的男性和女性患病率最高(前者男性为14.8%,女性为3.5%;后者男性为11.5%,女性为5.1%)。酒精使用障碍在高收入国家更为常见。

未来10年中预计全球消费量将增加

据估计,目前饮酒者有23亿人。在世卫组织美洲、欧洲和西太平洋这三个区域,半数以上人口消费酒精。欧洲尽管自2010年以来人均消费量下降了10%以上,但仍是世界人均消费量最高的区域。

当前趋势和预测显示,未来10年全球人均酒精消费量将增加,特别是在东南亚区域、西太平洋区域和美洲区域。这些区域里包括了中国和印度在内的人口大国,且这两个国家恰恰是该区域酒精人均消费量上升的原因。上升幅度最大的预计是东南亚区域,其中印度人均饮酒量将增加2.2升。其次预计发生在西太平洋区域,其中中国人口数量最多,预计到2025年中国人均摄入纯酒精的消费量将增加0.9升。

人们的酒精消费量是多少?

饮酒者日均消费33克纯酒精,大约相当于2杯葡萄酒(每杯150毫升),一大瓶(即750毫升)啤酒或两瓶烈酒(每瓶40毫升)。

全球15-19岁儿童中四分之一以上(27%)为目前饮酒者。15-19岁儿童的目前饮酒率欧洲最高(44%),其次是美洲(38%)和西太平洋(38%)。据学校调查表明,在许多国家,酒精使用始于15岁之前,且男孩和女孩之间差异极小。

在全球记录的酒精总消费量中,45%为烈酒形式。就消费的纯酒精而言,啤酒位居第二(34%),其次是葡萄酒(12%)。自2010年以来,世界各地对酒精饮料的偏好只有略微变化。其中最大的变化发生在欧洲,那里的烈性酒消费量减少了3%,而葡萄酒和啤酒的消费量则增加了。

相比之下,全球15岁及以上人群中,一半以上(57%或31亿人)在过去12个月内没有饮酒。

更多国家需要采取行动

所有国家都可以采取更多措施来降低有害使用酒精的健康和社会成本。具有成本效益的行之有效行动包括:增加酒精饮料税,禁止或限制酒类广告,以及限制酒精的实物供应 。

高力博士

世界卫生组织驻华代表

“鉴于中国目前的发展趋势,有必要在现有规章制度的基础上制定相应的法律框架,以提高酒精饮料税、限制酒类零售实物供应以及全面禁止酒类广告。”

几乎所有(95%)国家都实行了酒精消费税,但其中只有不到一半采用其它价格策略,例如禁止以低于成本的价格销售或批量折扣。大多数国家对啤酒广告实行某种限制,最常见的是在电视和广播中完全禁止广告,但较少限制互联网和社交媒体中的广告。

“我们希望看到会员国采取富有创造性的挽救生命解决方案,例如征收酒精税和限制广告等。在2010年至2025年期间,我们必须更加努力削减需求并实现各国政府设定的使全球酒精消费相对减少10%的目标。”

——谭德塞博士

世卫组织总干事

减少有害使用酒精将有助于实现可持续发展目标下一系列卫生相关具体目标,包括关于孕产妇和儿童健康、传染病、非传染性疾病和精神健康、伤害和中毒等的具体目标。

Harmful use of alcohol can be deadly

Harmful use of alcohol kills more than 3 million people each year, most of them men

More than 3 million people died as a result of harmful use of alcohol in 2016, according a report released by the World Health Organization (WHO) today. This represents 1 in 20 deaths. More than three quarters of these deaths were among men. Overall, the harmful use of alcohol causes more than 5% of the global disease burden.

WHO’s Global status report on alcohol and health 2018 presents a comprehensive picture of alcohol consumption and the disease burden attributable to alcohol worldwide. It also describes what countries are doing to reduce this burden.

“Far too many people, their families and communities suffer the consequences of the harmful use of alcohol through violence, injuries, mental health problems and diseases like cancer and stroke,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO. “It’s time to step up action to prevent this serious threat to the development of healthy societies.”

Of all deaths attributable to alcohol, 28% were due to injuries, such as those from traffic crashes, self-harm and interpersonal violence; 21% due to digestive disorders; 19% due to cardiovascular diseases, and the remainder due to infectious diseases, cancers, mental disorders and other health conditions.

Despite some positive global trends in the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking and number of alcohol-related deaths since 2010, the overall burden of disease and injuries caused by the harmful use of alcohol is unacceptably high, particularly in the European Region and the Region of Americas.

Globally an estimated 237 million men and 46 million women suffer from alcohol-use disorders with the highest prevalence among men and women in the European region (14.8% and 3.5%) and the Region of Americas (11.5% and 5.1%). Alcohol-use disorders are more common in high-income countries.

Global consumption predicted to increase in the next 10 years

An estimated 2.3 billion people are current drinkers. Alcohol is consumed by more than half of the population in three WHO regions – the Americas, Europe and the Western Pacific. Europe has the highest per capita consumption in the world, even though its per capita consumption has decreased by more than 10% since 2010.

Current trends and projections point to an expected increase in global alcohol per capita consumption in the next 10 years, particularly in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions and the Region of the Americas. These regions include the highly populated countries of China and India, which account for the increases in per capita consumption. The highest increase is expected in the South-East Asia Region, with an increase of 2.2 litres per capita in India. The second-highest increase is projected for the populations of the Western Pacific Region, where the population of China is the largest, with an increase in per capita consumption of 0.9 litres of pure alcohol by 2025.

How much alcohol are people drinking?

The average daily consumption of people who drink alcohol is 33 grams of pure alcohol a day, roughly equivalent to 2 glasses (each of 150 ml) of wine, a large (750 ml) bottle of beer or two shots (each of 40 ml) of spirits.

Worldwide, more than a quarter (27%) of all 15–19-year-olds are current drinkers. Rates of current drinking are highest among 15–19-year-olds in Europe (44%), followed by the Americas (38%) and the Western Pacific (38%). School surveys indicate that, in many countries, alcohol use starts before the age of 15 with very small differences between boys and girls.

Worldwide, 45% of total recorded alcohol is consumed in the form of spirits. Beer is the second alcoholic beverage in terms of pure alcohol consumed (34%) followed by wine (12%). Worldwide there have been only minor changes in preferences of alcoholic beverages since 2010. The largest changes took place in Europe, where consumption of spirits decreased by 3% whereas that of wine and beer increased.

In contrast, more than half (57%, or 3.1 billion people) of the global population aged 15 years and over had abstained from drinking alcohol in the previous 12 months.

More countries need to take action

All countries can do much more to reduce the health and social costs of the harmful use of alcohol. Proven, cost-effective actions include increasing taxes on alcoholic drinks, bans or restrictions on alcohol advertising, and restricting the physical availability of alcohol.

“Given the trends in China, there is a need to build on existing regulations and develop a legal framework to strengthen taxes on alcohol beverages, enforcement of the physical availability of retailed alcohol and total ban on alcohol advertisement,” said Gauden Galea, the WHO Representative in China.

Almost all (95%) countries have alcohol excise taxes, but fewer than half of them use other price strategies such as banning below-cost selling or volume discounts. The majority of countries have some type of restriction on beer advertising, with total bans most common for television and radio but less common for the internet and social media.

“We would like to see Member States implement creative solutions that will save lives, such as taxing alcohol and restricting advertising. We must do more to cut demand and reach the target set by governments of a 10% relative reduction in consumption of alcohol globally between 2010 and 2025,” added Dr Tedros.

Reducing the harmful use of alcohol will help achieve a number of health-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those for maternal and child health, infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, injuries and poisonings.

(此文为转载)

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